NASA/CR-4740, NASA CONTRACTOR REPORT: CONTAMINATION CONTROL ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE AEROSPACE COMMUNITY (MAY-1996)
NASA/CR-4740, NASA CONTRACTOR REPORT: CONTAMINATION CONTROL ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE AEROSPACE COMMUNITY (MAY-1996)., This report describes work accomplished under contract NAS5-32876 from the NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center as part of the NASA Space Environment Effects Program. Thermal control surfaces, solar arrays, and optical devices may be adversely affected by a small quantity of molecular and/or particulate contamination. What is rarely discussed is how one: (1) quantifies the level of contamination that must be maintained in order for the system to function properly, and (2) enforces contamination control to ensure compliance with requirements. This document is designed to address these specific issues and is intended to serve as a handbook on contamination control for the reader, illustrating process and methodology while providing direction to more detailed references when needed. The effects of molecular contamination on reflecting and transmitting surfaces are examined and quantified in accordance with MIL STD 1246C. The generation, transportation, and deposition of molecular contamination is reviewed and specific examples are worked to illustrate the process a design engineer can use to estimate end of life cleanliness levels required by solar arrays, thermal control surfaces, and optical surfaces. A similar process is used to describe the effect of particulate contamination as related to percent area coverage (PAC) and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Relationships between PAC and surface cleanliness, which include the effects of submicron sized particles, are developed and BRDF is related to specific sensor design parameters such as Point Source Transmittance (PST). The pros and cons of various methods of preventing, monitoring, and cleaning surfaces are examined and discussed.